Thursday, July 11, 2013

1307.2726 (O. Dionatos et al.)

DIGIT: Herschel and Spitzer spectro-imaging of SMM3 and SMM4 in Serpens    [PDF]

O. Dionatos, J. K. Jørgensen, J. D. Green, G. J. Herczeg, N. J. Evans II, L. E. Kristensen, J. E. Lindberg, E. F. van Dishoeck
We report on spectro-imaging observations employing Spitzer IRS and Herschel PACS, aiming to constrain the physical conditions around SMM3 and SMM4 in Serpens. The combined power of both instruments provides an almost complete wavelength coverage between 5 and 200 micron at an angular resolution of 10". We detect line emission from all major molecular (H2, CO, H2O and OH) and many atomic ([OI], [CII], [FeII], [SiII] and [SI]) coolants. Line emission tends to peak at distances of 10 - 20" from the protostellar sources, at positions of known outflow shocks. The only exception is [CII] which likely traces a PDR excited from the neighboring source SMM6. Excitation analysis indicates that H2 and CO originate from gas at two distinct rotational temperatures of 300 K and 1000 K, while H2O and OH emission corresponds to rotational temperatures of 100 - 200 K. The morphological and physical association between CO and H2 suggests a common excitation mechanism which allows direct comparisons between the two molecules. The CO/H2 abundance ratio varies from 10^-5 in the warm gas up to 10^-4 in the hotter regions. The occurrence of J-shocks is suggested by the strong atomic/ionic (except for [CII]) emission as well as a number of line ratio diagnostics. Both C- and J-shocks can account for the observed molecular emission, however J-shocks are strongly advocated by the atomic emission and provide simpler and more homogeneous solutions for CO and H2. C-shocks describe better the emission from H2O and OH. The variations in the CO/H2 abundance ratio for gas at different temperatures can be interpreted by their reformation rates in dissociative J-type shocks, or the simultaneous influence of both C and J shocks.
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