Monday, June 3, 2013

1305.7330 (Bertram Bitsch et al.)

Highly inclined and eccentric massive planets I: Planet-disc interactions    [PDF]

Bertram Bitsch, Aurélien Crida, Anne-Sophie Libert, Elena Lega
In the Solar System, planets have a small inclination with respect to the equatorial plane of the Sun, but there is evidence that in extrasolar systems the inclination can be very high. This spin-orbit misalignment is unexpected, as planets form in a protoplanetary disc supposedly aligned with the stellar spin. Planet-planet interactions are supposed to lead to a mutual inclination, but the effects of the protoplanetary disc are still unknown. We investigate therefore planet-disc interactions for planets above 1M_Jup. We check the influence of the inclination i, eccentricity e, and mass M_p of the planet. We perform 3D numerical simulations of protoplanetary discs with embedded high-mass planets. We provide damping formulae for i and e as a function of i, e, and M_p that fit the numerical data. For highly inclined massive planets, the gap opening is reduced, and the damping of i occurs on time-scales of the order of 10^-4 deg/yr M_disc/(0.01 M_star) with the damping of e on a smaller time-scale. While the inclination of low planetary masses (<5M_Jup) is always damped, large planetary masses with large i can undergo a Kozai-cycle with the disc. These Kozai-cycles are damped in time. Eccentricity is generally damped, except for very massive planets (M_p = 5M_Jup) where eccentricity can increase for low inclinations. The dynamics tends to a final state: planets end up in midplane and can then, over time, increase their eccentricity as a result of interactions with the disc. The interactions with the disc lead to damping of i and e after a scattering event of high-mass planets. If i is sufficiently reduced, the eccentricity can be pumped up because of interactions with the disc. If the planet is scattered to high inclination, it can undergo a Kozai-cycle with the disc that makes it hard to predict the exact movement of the planet and its orbital parameters at the dispersal of the disc.
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