Wednesday, April 24, 2013

1304.6124 (Alice C. Quillen et al.)

Origin Scenarios for the Kepler 36 Planetary System    [PDF]

Alice C. Quillen, Eva Bodman, Alexander Moore
We explore scenarios for the origin of two different density planets in the Kepler 36 system in adjacent orbits near the 7:6 mean motion resonance. We find that fine tuning is required in the stochastic forcing amplitude, the migration rate and planet eccentricities to allow two convergently migrating planets to bypass mean motion resonances such as the 4:3, 5:4 and 6:5, and yet allow capture into the 7:6 resonance. Stochastic forcing can eject the system from resonance causing a collision between the planets, unless the disk inducing migration and stochastic forcing is depleted soon after resonance capture. We explore a scenario with approximately Mars mass embryos originating exterior to the two planets and migrating inwards toward two planets. We find that gravitational interactions with embryos can nudge the system out of resonances. Numerical integrations with about a half dozen embryos can leave the two planets in the 7:6 resonance, as observed. Collisions between planets and embryos have a wide distribution of impact angles and velocities ranging from accretionary to disruptive. We find that impacts can occur at sufficiently high impact angle and velocity that the mantle of a planet could have been stripped, leaving behind a dense core. Some of our integrations show the two planets exchanging locations, allowing the outer planet that had experienced multiple collisions with embryos to become the innermost planet. A scenario involving gravitational interactions and collisions with embryos may account for both the proximity of the Kepler 36 planets and their large density contrast.
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